Law and Animal Experimentation: While some countries protect particular kinds of animals from being subject to experimentation—notably great apes and endangered species—very few place concrete limitations on what researchers may cause animals to suffer, given sufficient scientific justification. What laws do, instead, is establish standards for the humane treatment and housing of animals in labs, and they encourage researchers to limit or seek alternatives to the use of animals, when doing that is consistent with the scientific goals of their research. The result, of course, is that no existing regulatory scheme is satisfactory to opponents of animal research.
Enos the space chimp before insertion into the Mercury-Atlas 5 capsule in This rat is being deprived of restful sleep using a single platform "flower pot" technique. The water is within 1 cm of the small flower pot bottom platform where the rat sits.
At the onset of sleep, the rat would either fall into the water only to clamber back to the pot to avoid drowning, or its nose would become submerged into the water shocking it back to an awakened state. Mice are the most commonly used vertebrate species because of their size, low cost, ease of handling, and fast reproduction rate.
Over 20, rabbits were used for animal testing in the UK in The numbers of rabbits used for this purpose has fallen substantially over the past two decades. Inthere were 3, procedures on rabbits for eye irritation in the UK,  and in this number was just Cats[ edit ] Cats are most commonly used in neurological research.
In the UK, just procedures were carried out on cats in The number has been around for most of the last decade. Laika and Soviet space dogs Dogs are widely used in biomedical research, testing, and education—particularly beaglesbecause they are gentle and easy to handle, and to allow for comparisons with historical data from beagles a Reduction technique.
They are used as models for human and veterinary diseases in cardiology, endocrinologyand bone and joint studies, research that tends to be highly invasive, according to the Humane Society of the United States.
Animal testing on non-human primates Non-human primates NHPs are used in toxicology tests, studies of AIDS and hepatitis, studies of neurologybehavior and cognition, reproduction, geneticsand xenotransplantation.
They are caught in the wild or purpose-bred. In the United States and China, most primates are domestically purpose-bred, whereas in Europe the majority are imported purpose-bred. Department of Agriculturethere were 71, monkeys in U. As ofthere are approximately chimpanzees in U.
Laboratory animal sources and International primate trade Animals used by laboratories are largely supplied by specialist dealers. Sources differ for vertebrate and invertebrate animals. Most laboratories breed and raise flies and worms themselves, using strains and mutants supplied from a few main stock centers.
Animal shelters also supply the laboratories directly. Mice are either bred commercially, or raised in the laboratory. Department of Agriculture USDA to sell animals for research purposes, while Class B dealers are licensed to buy animals from "random sources" such as auctions, pound seizure, and newspaper ads.
Some Class B dealers have been accused of kidnapping pets and illegally trapping strays, a practice known as bunching. Fourteen states explicitly prohibit the practice, while the remainder either allow it or have no relevant legislation.
The latter requirement may also be exempted by special arrangement. Over half the primates imported between and were handled by Charles River Laboratoriesor by Covancewhich is the single largest importer of primates into the U.
Animal cognitionPain in animalsPain in fishPain in amphibiansPain in invertebratesand Pain in cephalopods Prior to dissection for educational purposes, chloroform was administered to this common sand frog to induce anesthesia and death.
The extent to which animal testing causes pain and sufferingand the capacity of animals to experience and comprehend them, is the subject of much debate.
The five categories are "sub-threshold", "mild", "moderate", "severe" and "non-recovery", the latter being procedures in which an animal is anesthetized and subsequently killed without recovering consciousness. Academic reviews of the topic are more equivocal, noting that although the argument that animals have at least simple conscious thoughts and feelings has strong support,  some critics continue to question how reliably animal mental states can be determined.
It states "The ability to experience and respond to pain is widespread in the animal kingdom Pain is a stressor and, if not relieved, can lead to unacceptable levels of stress and distress in animals.
On the subject of analgesics used to relieve pain, the Guide states "The selection of the most appropriate analgesic or anesthetic should reflect professional judgment as to which best meets clinical and humane requirements without compromising the scientific aspects of the research protocol".
Accordingly, all issues of animal pain and distress, and their potential treatment with analgesia and anesthesia, are required regulatory issues in receiving animal protocol approval.
Euthanasia and Animal euthanasia Regulations require that scientists use as few animals as possible, especially for terminal experiments.
The animal can be made to inhale a gas, such as carbon monoxide and carbon dioxideby being placed in a chamber, or by use of a face mask, with or without prior sedation or anesthesia. Sedatives or anesthetics such as barbiturates can be given intravenouslyor inhalant anesthetics may be used.
Amphibians and fish may be immersed in water containing an anesthetic such as tricaine. Physical methods are also used, with or without sedation or anesthesia depending on the method.
Recommended methods include decapitation beheading for small rodents or rabbits. Cervical dislocation breaking the neck or spine may be used for birds, mice, and immature rats and rabbits.Note: Citations are based on reference standards.
However, formatting rules can vary widely between applications and fields of interest or study. The specific requirements or preferences of your reviewing publisher, classroom teacher, institution or organization should be applied. According to the U.S. Department of Agriculture’s aptly named the Animal Usage report, 60, dogs were used in the U.S.
for experimentation in alone. The reported number of all animals. Animal testing, also known as animal experimentation, animal research and in vivo testing, is the use of non-human animals in experiments that seek to control the variables that affect the behavior or biological system under srmvision.com approach can be contrasted with field studies in which animals are observed in their natural environments or habitats.
Andrew Knight is a European Veterinary Specialist in Welfare Science, Ethics and Law, and Fellow of the Oxford Center for Animal Ethics, UK and an Associate Professor of Welfare and Ethics at Ross University School of Veterinary Medicine in the Caribbean.
Ethics of Medical Research with Animals. Science, Values, and Alternatives. Other Reports; Additional Educational Resources; Bibliography; Glossary; special report» Legal and Policy Reform. U.S. Law and Animal Experimentation: A Critical Primer Its animal experimentation regulations apply to any school or research facility that.
Stop Animal Exploitation NOW! - Exposing the truth to wipe out animal experimentation. Home Page About SAEN Articles and Reports Contact Us Events and Campaigns Fact Sheets Financial Information We have also seen that at least some labs report their animal use inaccurately.