Tundra is described as an area where levels of subsoil beneath the surface of the earth are permanently frozen. This soil is referred to as permafrost. The level of earth above the permafrost will thaw in the short summer allowing plants to grow. This level will then freeze again in the winter and most of the plants will go dormant.
Dragonflieslike this common clubtail with captured prey, are invertebrate pursuit predators. In pursuit predation, predators chase fleeing prey. If the prey flees in a straight line, capture depends only on the predator's being faster than the prey. The method is used by human hunter-gatherers and in canids such as African wild dogs and domestic hounds.
The African wild dog is an extreme persistence predator, tiring out individual prey by following them for many miles at relatively low speed, compared for example to the cheetah 's brief high-speed pursuit. These very large marine predators feed on planktonespecially krilldiving and actively swimming into concentrations of plankton, and then taking a huge gulp of water and filtering it through their feathery baleen plates.
Osprey tears its fish prey apart, avoiding dangers such as sharp spines. Once the predator has captured the prey, it has to handle it: Some catfish such as the Ictaluridae have spines on the back dorsal and belly pectoral which lock in the erect position; as the catfish thrashes about when captured, these could pierce the predator's mouth, possibly fatally.
Some fish-eating birds like the osprey avoid the danger of spines by tearing up their prey before eating it. Cooperative hunting In social predation, a group of predators cooperates to kill prey. This makes it possible to kill creatures larger than those they could overpower singly; for example, hyenasand wolves collaborate to catch and kill herbivores as large as buffalo, Adaptations of land animals lions even hunt elephants.
For example, when mixed flocks of birds forage, the birds in front flush out insects that are caught by the birds behind. Spinner dolphins form a circle around a school of fish and move inwards, concentrating the fish by a factor of Predators of different species sometimes cooperate to catch prey.
In coral reefswhen fish such as the grouper and coral trout spot prey that is inaccessible to them, they signal to giant moray eelsNapoleon wrasses or octopuses. These predators are able to access small crevices and flush out the prey.
Solitary predators have more chance of eating what they catch, at the price of increased expenditure of energy to catch it, and increased risk that the prey will escape. These include speed, agility, stealth, sharp senses, claws, teeth, filters, and suitable digestive systems.
Many predators have acute hearing, and some such as echolocating bats hunt exclusively by active or passive use of sound.
Some predators such as snakes and fish-eating birds like herons and cormorants swallow their prey whole; some snakes can unhinge their jaws to allow them to swallow large prey, while fish-eating birds have long spear-like beaks that they use to stab and grip fast-moving and slippery prey.
Lions can attack much larger prey, including elephants, but do so much less often. Predators are often highly specialized in their diet and hunting behaviour; for example, the Eurasian lynx only hunts small ungulates. When prey have a clumped uneven distribution, the optimal strategy for the predator is predicted to be more specialized as the prey are more conspicuous and can be found more quickly;  this appears to be correct for predators of immobile prey, but is doubtful with mobile prey.
This has led to a correlation between the size of predators and their prey. Size may also act as a refuge for large prey.
For example, adult elephants are relatively safe from predation by lions, but juveniles are vulnerable. Members of the cat family such as the snow leopard treeless highlandstiger grassy plains, reed swampsocelot forestfishing cat waterside thicketsand lion open plains are camouflaged with coloration and disruptive patterns suiting their habitats.
Female Photuris firefliesfor example, copy the light signals of other species, thereby attracting male fireflies, which they capture and eat.
Venom and Evolution of snake venom Many smaller predators such as the box jellyfish use venom to subdue their prey,  and venom can also aid in digestion as is the case for rattlesnakes and some spiders. These changes are explained by the fact that its prey does not need to be subdued.
Antipredator adaptation To counter predation, prey have a great variety of defences.
They can try to avoid detection. They can detect predators and warn others of their presence. If detected, they can try to avoid being the target of an attack, for example, by signalling that a chase would be unprofitable or by forming groups.Penguins In order to understand the adaptations penguins have, we first need to look at some of the characteristics of all birds.
• Birds have their feathers in rows, with spaces in between. • In order to fly they need extra light bones. They have extra air. Adaptations of land animals help them animals to survive in their ecological niche or habitat.
These adaptations can be physiological or behavioral or anatomical. Adaptations in animals can be either physical or behavioral. Physical adaptations may be structural made to a part of the body. May 28, · Fish are poikilothermic organisms, or in simpler terms, cold-blooded animals, which means that the lower the temperature of their surroundings is, the harder it is for them to maintain their metabolic functions.
An animal’s body covering is one clearly visible adaptation. Body coverings help to protect animals in diverse environments -- from the land . Across the planet, there are numerous grasslands, each with its own unique animal inhabitants.
How do the animals in these grassland environments survive and adapt?
The animals, which live on land and do their biological activities on land, are called terrestrial animals. On the basis of their mode of life, terrestrial animals are divided into following types: Cursorial animals. An animal’s body covering is one clearly visible adaptation. Body coverings help to protect animals in diverse environments -- from the land . Feathers were probably adaptations for keeping the animal warm that were later used for flight, making feathers an exaptation for flying. Some adaptations, on the other hand, become useless. These adaptations are vestigial: remaining but functionless.
Did you know there are two types of Rainforest-- the temperate and the tropical?Tropical rainforests are found close to the equator. Temperate rainforests are found along coasts in the temperate zone, such as the Pacific Northwest of the USA.