An answer to the question what is enlightenment essay

The quantity and diversity of artistic works during the period do not fit easily into categories for interpretation, but some loose generalizations may be drawn. At the opening of the century, baroque forms were still popular, as they would be at the end. They were partially supplanted, however, by a general lightening in the rococo motifs of the early s.

An answer to the question what is enlightenment essay

I was trained, as a chemist, to use the classic scientific method: Devise a testable hypothesis, and then design an experiment to see if the hypothesis is correct or not.

Kant. What is Enlightenment

And I was told that this method is equally valid for the social sciences. I've changed my mind that this is the best way to do science. I have three reasons for this change of mind.

First, and probably most importantly, I've learned that one often needs simply to sit and observe and learn about one's subject before even attempting to devise a testable hypothesis. What are the physical capacities of the subject?

What is the social and ecological structure in which it lives? Does some anecdotal evidence suggest the form that the hypothesis should take? Few granting agencies are willing to provide support for this step, but it is critical to the scientific process, particularly for truly innovative research.

Often, a proposal to gain observational experience is dismissed as being a "fishing expedition"…but how can one devise a workable hypothesis to test without first acquiring basic knowledge of the system, and how better to obtain such basic knowledge than to observe the system without any preconceived notions?

Second, I've learned that truly interesting questions really often can't be reduced to a simple testable hypothesis, at least not without being somewhat absurd. Well, you get the picture…the exciting part is a series of interrelated questions that arise and expand almost indefinitely.

Third, I've learned that the scientific community's emphasis on hypothesis-based research leads too many scientists to devise experiments to prove, rather than test, their hypotheses.

Many journal submissions lack any discussion of alternative competing hypotheses: Researchers don't seem to realize that collecting data that are consistent with their original hypothesis doesn't mean that it is unconditionally true.

Alternatively, they buy into the fallacy that absence of evidence for something is always evidence of its absence. I'm all for rigor in scientific research — but let's emphasize the gathering of knowledge rather than the proving of a point. That is the Question I grew up infused with the idea of unification.

It came first from religion, from my Jewish background. God was all over, was all-powerful, and had a knack for interfering with human affairs, at least in the Old Testament. He then appeared to have decided to be a bit shyer, sending a Son instead, and only revealing Himself through visions and prophecies.

Needless to say, when, as a teenager, I started to get interested in science, this vision of an all-pervading God, stories of floods, commandments and plagues, started to become very suspicious. I turned to physics, idolizing Einstein and his science; here was a Jew that saw further, that found a way of translating this old monotheistic tradition into the universal language of science.

As I started my research career, I had absolutely no doubt that I wanted to become a theoretical physicist working on particle physics and cosmology.

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This was what Einstein tried to do for the last three decades of his life, although in his days it was more a search for unifying only half of the forces of Nature, gravity and electromagnetism. I wrote dozens of papers related to the subject of unification, even my Ph. I was fascinated by the modern approaches to the idea, supersymmetry, superstrings, a space with extra, hidden dimensions.

A part of me still is. But then, a few years ago, something snapped.The essays, ‘An Answer to the Question: What is Enlightenment’ by Immanuel Kant, an 18th century philosopher, and ‘What is Enlightenment’ by Michel Foucault, a 20th century philosopher.

The texts show that the Enlightenment was the age of reason because it allowed individuals to.

An answer to the question what is enlightenment essay

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Zen and the Art of Divebombing, or The Dark Side of the Tao. Whoever is called a great minister, when he finds that he cannot morally serve his prince, he resigns. In the essay "What is Enlightenment?" (or "Answering the Question: What is Enlightenment?"), Kant says that enlightenment is "man's emergence from his self-imposed nonage." This means that enlightenment is a man/woman progressing from a state of self-imposed naivete to a state of autonomous reason.

[1] The two successful attempts were the theft of the company, engineered by my boss, in Seattle in , and theft of the company when Dennis was in jail in , engineered by a business associate. [2] Why only three thousand? Why not three million? The answer speaks volumes about the USA. [3] For instance, when I was briefly with Dennis in , one of his volunteers previously.

An Answer to the Question: What is Enlightenment