His father was a master harness maker, and his mother was the daughter of a harness maker, though she was better educated than most women of her social class. Pietism was an evangelical Lutheran movement that emphasized conversion, reliance on divine grace, the experience of religious emotions, and personal devotion involving regular Bible study, prayer, and introspection.
The Fine-Tuning Argument, Generalized by Luke Muehlhauser on September 30, in Design Argument Religious believers often claim that the universe is fine-tuned for life, and that this is evidence of God.
As such, it invites a careful examination. This argument takes many forms, but we might generalize it like this: The apparent fine-tuning of the universe for life is explained by naturalistic design, naturalistic non-design, supernatural design, supernatural non-design, or some combination of those factors.
The apparent fine-tuning of the universe for life is not explained by naturalistic design, naturalistic non-design, supernatural non-design, or a combination of factors. Therefore, the apparent fine-tuning of the universe for life is explained by supernatural design.
The argument Aquinas cosmological argument essay deductively valid, so if the premises are true then the conclusion must be true. Premise 1 is not much debated. The four options given cover all possibilites.
But perhaps the fine-tuning of the universe could be explained by a combination of these options, so premise 1 is not certain.
So nearly all the action is on premise 2. If premise 2 is more probably true than not, then it may be fair to say that the apparent fine-tuning of the universe counts as genuine evidence for supernatural design. Most of the debate, however, has focused on two of these possibilities: I may return briefly to the other two possibilities later, but for the most part I would like to set them aside.
I currently believe naturalistic non-design explains the apparent fine-tuning of our universe, and most people who disagree with me defend a supernatural design hypothesis. So those are the two possibilities on which I will focus.
The first [objection] is this: Most of it is completely inhospitable and hostile to life. The fine-tuning argument applies to the universe as a whole. The second objection is: We are adapted to the universe by evolution, not the universe is adapted to us.
Also, remember that admitting that our universe is fine-tuned for life does not immediately priviledge a design hypothesis: The orbits of the planets are not fine-tuned ellipses because of gods, but because of physics.
And as Moritz agrees, it appears that primitive biological systems need not have been fine-tuned for replication and evolution by a deity — instead, their properties emerged from chemistry. Defenders of the fine-tuning argument have put the emphasis in different places.
If the universe is fine-tuned for life, it is even more fine-tuned for intelligent life or conscious life. Where the distinction matters, we shall examine it — including, in the next post of this series.
What, exactly, is fine-tuned? A few people — Victor Stenger and Fred Adamsfor example — have questioned the idea that the universe is so finely-tuned as usually claimed.
Instead, I will take the vast majority of cosmologists at their word when they say that if the parameters of our universe were much different, life as we know it could not exist. For example, if the amount of matter in the universe had differed by 1 part inlife could not have existed.
If the universe had had too much matter, it would collapsed back on itself in a second. If it had had too little matter, it would have expanded too quickly for planets to form.
And if the strength of gravity or the strength of the weak force had differed by as little as one part inspace would have likewise expanded or contracted too quickly for life to have evolved.Atheists often lose public debates with theists, especially when going up against heavyweights like William Lane Craig..
I don’t know of an atheist losing a debate to someone who denies evolution. Free rogerian argument papers, essays, and research papers. The cosmological argument is less a particular argument than an argument type.
It uses a general pattern of argumentation (logos) that makes an inference from particular alleged facts about the universe (cosmos) to the existence of a unique being, generally identified with or referred to as srmvision.com these initial facts are that particular beings or events in the universe are causally.
Immanuel Kant (–) is the central figure in modern philosophy. He synthesized early modern rationalism and empiricism, set the terms for much of nineteenth and twentieth century philosophy, and continues to exercise a significant influence today in metaphysics, epistemology, ethics, political philosophy, aesthetics, and other fields.
The lord whose oracle is in Delphi neither speaks nor conceals but gives a sign. Heraclitus of Ephesus, quoted by Plutarch, De Pythiae oraculis 21, E, The Presocratic Philosophers, G.S. Kirk & J.E. Raven, Cambridge, , p Unless Plato had already written some short dialogues to illustrate Socrates' technique of questioning (like the Euthyphro), the Apology of Socrates is the earliest.
Religious Epistemology. Belief in God, or some form of transcendent Real, has been assumed in virtually every culture throughout human history.
|Veracity Hill||Most people who comment on the cosmological argument demonstrably do not know what they are talking about.|
|Arguments for the Existence of God||For example, the general question of whether "God" has a body or is composed of matter is answered in question three, immediately following the Five Ways. For example, while he would allow that in all creatures there is found the trace of the Trinity yet a trace shows that someone has passed by but not who it is.|
The issue of the reasonableness or rationality of belief in God or particular beliefs about God typically arises when a religion is confronted with religious competitors or the rise of atheism or agnosticism.. In the West, belief in God was assumed in.