The International History Project Date: Archaeology studies past human behavior through the examination of material remains of previous human societies. These remains include the fossils preserved bones of humans, food remains, the ruins of buildings, and human artifacts—items such as tools, pottery, and jewelry. From their studies, archaeologists attempt to reconstruct past ways of life.
The tools humanity will need for living in the year 1 trillion June 25, by Matt Williams, Universe Today A new study considers what life could be like for civilizations 1 trillion years from now, when every star in the Universe will expand beyond the cosmic horizon.
Brunier Since the s, astrophysicists have known that for the past few billion years, the Universe has been experiencing an accelerated rate of expansion. This gave rise to the theory that the Universe is permeated by a mysterious invisible energy known as "dark energy", which acts against gravity and is pushing the cosmos apart.
In time, this energy will become the dominant force in the Universe, causing all stars and galaxies to spread beyond the cosmic horizon. At this point, all stars and galaxies in the Universe will no longer be visible or accessible from any other.
The question remains, what will intelligent civilizations such as our own do for resources and energy at this point? This question was addressed in a recent paper by Dr.
Abraham Loeb — the Frank B. As he indicates in his study, when the Universe is ten times its current age roughly billion years oldall stars outside the Local Group of galaxies will no be accessible to us since they will be receding away faster than the speed of light.
For this reason, he recommends that humanity follow the lesson from Aesop's fable, "The Ants and the Grasshopper".
This classic tale tells the story of ants who spent the summer collecting food for the winter while the grasshopper chose to enjoy himself. While different versions of the story exist that offer different takes on the importance of hard work, charity, and compassion, the lesson is simple: In this respect, Loeb recommends that advanced species migrate to rich clusters of galaxies.
These clusters represent the largest reservoirs of matter bound by gravity and would therefore be better able to resist the accelerated expansion of the Universe.
Loeb told Universe Today via email: Primordial density perturbations from the early universe led to the gravitational collapse of regions as large as tens of millions of light years, assembling all the matter in them into clusters of galaxies — each containing the equivalent of a thousand Milky Way galaxies.
Loeb also indicated where humanity or other advanced civilizations should consider relocating to when the expansion of the Universe causes the stars of the Local Group to expand beyond the cosmic horizon.
Within 50 million light years, he indicates, likes the Virgo Cluster, which contains about a thousands times more matter than the Milky Way Galaxy. The second closest is the Coma Cluster, a collection of over galaxies located about million light years away.
In addition to offering a solution to the accelerating expansion of the Universe, Dr. Loeb's study also presents some interesting possibilities when it comes to the search for extra-terrestrial intelligence SETI. If, in fact, there are already advanced civilizations migrating to prepare for the inevitable expansion of the Universe, they may be detectable by various means.
Moreover, we would expected a larger concentration of advanced civilization in clusters than would be expected simply by counting the number of galaxies there.
Those that settle there could establish more prosperous communities, in analogy to civilizations near rivers or lakes on Earth. Loeb conducted back inwhich appeared in the Journal of Cosmology and Astroparticle Physics under the title "Cosmology with Hypervelocity Stars".
At the time, Dr. Loeb was addressing what would happen in the distant future when all extragalactic light sources will cease to be visible or accessible due to the accelerating expansion of the Universe. Diagram showing the Virgo Supercluster. Colvin This study was a follow-up to a paper in which Dr.
Loeb addressed what would become of the Universe in billions of years — which appeared in the journal Physical Review Letters under the title "The Long—Term Future of Extragalactic Astronomy".
Loeb and Freeman Dyson himself began to correspond about what could be done to address this problem.Modern Western Civilization The West And the Rest Proximate reasons Segmentation Crusades Reacquaintance with Far and Middle East Overseas Expansion.
Mathematics, also known as the Queen of Sciences, permeates every area of our lives. Whether you are filling in your accounts, building a cabinet, or watching the stars, you are using mathematical principles laid down through the ages, and it is a discipline that underpins life as we know it.
The Cuneiform Writing System in Ancient Mesopotamia: Emergence and Evolution. The earliest writing systems evolved independently and at roughly the same time in Egypt and Mesopotamia, but current scholarship suggests that Mesopotamia’s writing appeared first.
civilizations were the Olmec, Maya, Aztec, and _____. The cultures of Native American people varied depending on _____. A key part of the West African 3 Interactive Reader and Study Guide What was the greatest city in the Americas during the height of the Aztec culture?
What evidence do we have that. Study Western Civilization discussion and chapter questions and find Western Civilization study guide questions and answers.
Understanding the Olmec culture is very important to modern-day researchers and archaeologists. First of all, the Olmec was the "mother" culture of Mesoamerica, and many aspects of Olmec culture, such as gods, glyphic writing, and artistic forms, became part of later civilizations such as the Maya and Aztecs.