Overview[ edit ] Critical theory German: Critical Theory is a social theory oriented toward critiquing and changing society as a whole, in contrast to traditional theory oriented only to understanding or explaining it. Horkheimer wanted to distinguish critical theory as a radical, emancipatory form of Marxian theory, critiquing both the model of science put forward by logical positivism and what he and his colleagues saw as the covert positivism and authoritarianism of orthodox Marxism and Communism. He described a theory as critical insofar as it seeks "to liberate human beings from the circumstances that enslave them".
Equally, the subsequent history of Marxist aesthetics has hardly comprised the cumulative unfolding of a coherent perspective. Rather, it has emerged, aptly, as a series of responses to concrete political exigencies.
While these responses have sometimes collided at various theoretical planes, they achieve a dynamic and expansive coherence rather than the static coherence of a closed, finished system through both a general overlap of political motivation and the persistent reworking of a core of predispositions about literature and art deriving from Marx and Engels themselves.
The aesthetic corollary of this is that literature can only be understood in the fullness of its relations with ideology, class, and economic substructure. Language itself, as Marx said in The German Ideology: Part One, must be understood not as a self-sufficient system but as social practice GI, 51, If, as Marx said, human beings produce themselves through labor, artistic production can be viewed as a branch of production in general.
This has sometimes gone hand in hand with prescriptions for literature as an ideological ancillary to the aims and results of political revolution.
His workstranslated into all the major European languages, exerted enormous influence and made a particularly striking impression on Georgi Plekhanovwho introduced his work to Russia, as well as on Lenin and Trotsky.
Another star in the firmament of early Marxist theory was the Prussian-born Franz Mehring — A one-time follower of Ferdinand Lassalle, Mehring became an outstanding Marxist historian and aesthetician who, along with Rosa Luxemburg and others, founded the German Communist Party in His writings included the first authoritative biography of Marx, Karl Marx: The Story of His Lifeand The Lessing-Legend —which both applied Marxist categories to the analysis of major German literary figures and brought these within the reach of working-class readers.
Mehring attempted to situate Criticism of agency theory aesthetics, and Marxist thought in general, in necessary relation to the German classical philosophy and aesthetics which had preceded it. This elicited censure from such figures as Paul Reimann and F.
There is much in Mehring which might justify such a response. One of the central questions he confronts is: German Marxist theory found a further advocate in Karl Kautsky —whose preeminence endured till around He developed the thesis that the major monotheistic religions arose in nations bound by a nomadic way of life; they had not developed the industry or art necessary to construct the localized human images of deities which facilitated polytheism.
Ironically, these more backward cultures could make a leap beyond polytheism to a higher form of religion whose progress was retarded in more advanced societies. His writings include Socialism and the Political Struggle and Fundamental Problems of Marxismas well as his highly influential Art and Social Life and some shorter pieces such as The Role of the Individual in History In the last of these he argues that the role of gifted individuals, such as Napoleon, in history has been exaggerated.
Hence particular trends in art or literature do not depend exclusively on certain individuals for their expression; if the trend is sufficiently profound, it will compensate the premature death of one individual by giving rise to other talents who might embody it.
The depth of a literary trend is determined by its significance for the class whose tastes it expresses, and by the social role of that class. Plekhanov refuses to approach this question by abstractly asserting the priority of one or the other. If Bucher were right, the Marxist explanation would be turned upside down.
As against BucherPlekhanov, following Herbert Spencer, maintains that play is a dramatization and imitation of labor or useful activity. Hence utilitarian activity precedes play and is what determines its content.
One of the most striking figures in the Marxist canon was Rosa Luxemburg — Born into a Jewish business background in Poland, she migrated to Germany where she joined the Social Democratic Party, rising to a lofty prominence until her assassination in Her most renowned contribution was The Accumulation of Capital Centrally concerned with the reasons behind the stagnation and lack of development of Marxist theory, she was also anxious to preserve an aesthetic dimension for art, a recalcitrance to what she saw as reductive analysis.
The starting points of Dostoyevsky and Tolstoy, she affirmed, were not reactionary. She urged that a working-class culture could not be produced within a bourgeois economic framework, and that the workers could only advance if they created for themselves the necessary intellectual weapons in their struggle for liberation.
Luxemburg believed that Marx provided much more than was directly essential for practically conducting the class war and that the theoretical fruits of his system could only be realized more gradually. Vladimir Ilyich Lenin — occupied a central role not only in the revolution of but also in the unfolding of Marxist aesthetics toward a more politically interventionist stance.
Such a view overlooks both the context in which the essay was conceived and its actual arguments. Written shortly after the general strike of Octoberit belongs to a politically volatile period in which the work of revolution was far from complete, as Lenin emphasizes: Lenin also points out that in bourgeois society the writer cherishes but an illusory freedom: It can be seen from the foregoing that the early debates on art during and after the revolutionary period in Russia focused on questions such as the degree of party control over the arts, the stance toward the bourgeois cultural legacy, and the imperative to clarify the connections between the political and the aesthetic.The Uses and Abuses of Agency Theory in Business Ethics as to blame agency theory – and the teaching of agency theory in business schools – for creating the the standard response to this criticism is to say that the economic model of rationality implies no such.
The Criticisms On Agency Theory And Its Application Finance Essay. Print Reference this. Disclaimer: Moreover, this paper will answer how this criticism was justified and how in a way, the agency theory negatively affects proper corporate governance.
The agency theory states that the concept of incentive (rewards) and sanctions. Aesthetics (/ ɛ s ˈ θ ɛ t ɪ k s, iː s-/) is a branch of philosophy that explores the nature of art, beauty, and taste, with the creation and appreciation of beauty..
In its more technical epistemological perspective, it is defined as the study of subjective and sensori-emotional values, sometimes called judgments of sentiment and taste. Aesthetics studies how artists imagine, create and. Agency Theory: An Assessment and Review Created Date: Z. criticism of agency theory.
In his "Indeterminism and the Theory of AGENCY THEORY RECONSIDERED 73 action: he causally contributes to his performing the action and is not caused to do so by antecedently existing conditions. Thus, the action is not an uncaused, random or capricious occurrence.
Criticism Of Agency Theory. Agency Theory Agency theory is widely used in different companies, businesses and organizations Agency Theory is basically about the association between the boss, which is the Principal, and the worker, which is the Agent.