Life Matthew was the eldest son of the renowned Thomas Arnoldwho was appointed headmaster of Rugby School in Matthew entered Rugby and then attended Oxford as a scholar of Balliol College; there he won the Newdigate Prize with his poem Cromwell and was graduated with second-class honours in For Oxford Arnold retained an impassioned affection.
See also, criticism on Culture and Anarchy: An Essay in Political and Social Criticism. Arnold is considered one of the most significant writers of the late Victorian period in England.
However, it was through his prose writing that Arnold asserted his greatest influence on literature. His writings on the role of literary criticism in society advance classical ideals and advocate the adoption of universal aesthetic standards. Biographical Information Arnold was the eldest son of Thomas Arnold, an influential educator who served as headmaster of Rugby School for a number of years.
Arnold himself attended Rugby from toand it was while he was a student there that he composed the prize-winning poem Alaric at Rome, which was published in After graduating from Balliol College at Oxford inArnold accepted a teaching post at the university and continued to write verse, publishing The Strayed Reveller, and Other Poems in Two years later he was appointed inspector of schools, a position he held until shortly before his death.
Arnold focused his energies on poetry untilwhen he became critical of Romantic expressions of emotion in poetry. For the remaining thirty-five years of his literary career, Arnold wrote numerous essays and reviews on literary, educational, and cultural issues; his controversial perspective on Christianity provoked the outrage of conservative politicians and religious thinkers.
He died of heart failure on April 15, The following year, he reissued the collection without its title poem. Explaining his actions in his preface to the reissued collection, an essay that has become one of his most significant critical statements, Arnold denounced the emotional and stylistic excesses of late Romantic poetry and outlined a poetic theory derived from Aristotelian principles of unity and decorum.
Critics suggest that Arnold's recognition of the pervasive Romantic tendencies of his poetry, which conflicted dramatically with his classicist critical temperament, ultimately led him to abandon poetry as a form of self-expression.
Arnold's first major prose works, On Translating Homer and The Popular Education of France, with Notices of That of Holland and Switzerland, both published ininaugurated his career as a highly visible and sometimes controversial literary and social critic.
With the appearance of St. Paul and Protestantism, with an Essay on Puritanism and the Church of England inArnold's focus shifted to theological issues, particularly what he viewed as a crisis of religious faith in Victorian society.
Arnold attributed this crisis to the conflict between the prevailing influence of scientific rationalism and the intransigence of conservative theology. His solution was a liberal, symbolic interpretation of biblical scripture, presented in Literature and Dogma: An Essay towards a Better Apprehension of the Biblethe publication of which caused an immediate uproar among conservative Church leaders and religious theorists.
Two years later Arnold answered his critics in God and the Bible: During his final years, Arnold made two tours of the United States and recorded his overwhelmingly negative assessment of American culture in Civilization in the United States: First and Last Impressions of America Arnold's prose writings articulate his desire to establish universal standards of taste and judgment.
Similarly, Culture and Anarchy: An Essay in Political and Social Criticismwidely viewed as one of Arnold's most important works, was motivated by his desire to redress what he saw as the smug provincialism and arrogance of English society.
The essay is a sociopolitical analysis of England's class structure in which Arnold identifies three major classes: Barbarians the aristocracyPhilistines the middle classand the Populace the lower class. While Arnold praised the aristocracy for their refined manners and social assurance, he also condemned them for their conservatism.
The lower class he dismissed as an ineffectual, inchoate mass. Arnold argued that as the middle class gradually assumed control of English politics, they must be transformed from their unpolished state into a sensitive, sophisticated, intellectual community.
The alternative, he contended, would be a dissolution of England's moral and cultural standards. Arnold also endorsed the eventual creation of a classless society in which every individual would subscribe to highly refined ideals based on the culture of ancient Greece.
Although Arnold strove to imitate classical Greek and Roman models in his poetry, critics agree that his work manifests Romantic subjectivism. Many of his poems assume the form of a soliloquy or confession in which the narrator communicates feelings of melancholy or regret.
However, Arnold's essentially Romantic sentiments are praised for the precisely wrought and measured manner in which they are expressed.
Critical scholarship attests to Arnold's prescience in his prose writings, in forecasting the problems and possibilities that would arise with the transition from an aristocratic society to a democratic one.
Eliot's essay of the same name, critic Terence Hawkes notes that both writers consider criticism a seminal tool in helping society objectively examine its failures and successes. Hawkes relates that the role of criticism as described by Arnold and his contemporaries is often haunted by the notion that it is secondary to the actual happening.
Instead, says Hawkes, Arnold himself viewed criticism as a necessary and complementary act to the primary text or idea it was examining, often serving to illustrate uncanny and noteworthy aspects not inherent in the original text or incident.
Recent scholarship on Arnold has acknowledged that Arnold's writing reflects the tensions of modern literature, particularly his remarks on aesthetic judgment, and his attempts to formulate a theory of the role of criticism in culture.
His integration of social criticism and literary analysis, says Stefan Collini, is acknowledged as his most significant and lasting achievement.Arnold on tanslating homer essays in , surrey, clark, matthew arnold 1: alk.
See also sort these by matthew arnold lectures and inspector of matthew arnold, daniel g. Unlike some people the internet archive by matthew arnold. 2/2 poetical and sheet music, matthew arnold shakespeare; v. Matthew Arnold: Matthew Arnold, English Victorian poet and literary and social critic, noted especially for his classical attacks on the contemporary tastes and manners of the “Barbarians” (the aristocracy), the “Philistines” (the commercial middle class), and the “Populace.” He became the apostle of “culture” in.
Lectures and Essays in Criticism (v. 3) Hardcover – September 28, by Matthew Arnold (Author), R. H. Super (Editor)Author: Matthew Arnold.
The Complete Prose Works of Matthew Arnold. Volume III.
Lectures and Essays in Criticism. Volume 3. Matthew Arnold. Edited with Critical and Explanatory Notes by R.H. Super. The basis of Arnold's high reputation as literary critic. You May Also Be Interested In.
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Matthew Arnold: Matthew Arnold, English Victorian poet and literary and social critic, noted especially for his classical attacks on the contemporary tastes and manners of the “Barbarians” (the aristocracy), the “Philistines” (the commercial middle class), and the “Populace.” He became the apostle of “culture” in.